龙腾网 NASA表示地球比年前更绿了 这要感谢中国和印度

2021-11-30 13:12| 发布者:资讯小秘书| 查看:1| 评论:0

摘要:本文核心词:森林,NASA,涨姿势,社会,环境,龙腾网看世界,国外新鲜事The world is literally a greener place than it was 20 years ago, and the data from NASA satellites has revealed a counterintuitive source ...
本文核心词:森林,NASA,涨姿势,社会,环境,龙腾网看世界,国外新鲜事

The world is literally a greener place than it was 20 years ago, and the data from NASA satellites has revealed a counterintuitive source for much of this new foliage: China and India.

与20年前相比,这个世界确实是一个更加绿色的地方,来自美国宇航局卫星的数据揭示了这么一个违反直觉的源头:中国和印度。

This surprising new study shows that the two emerging countries with the world’s biggest populations are leading the improvement in greening on land. The effect stems mainly from ambitious tree planting programs in China and intensive agriculture in both countries. In 2017 alone, India broke its own world record for the most trees planted after volunteers gathered to plant 66 million saplings in just 12 hours.

这一令人惊讶的新研究表明,世界上人口最多的两个新兴国家在改善土地绿化方面处于领先地位。这种效应主要源于中国雄心勃勃的植树计划和两国的集约化农业。仅在2017年,印度就打破了自己种植树木最多的世界纪录,志愿者们聚集在一起,在短短12小时内种植了6600万棵树苗。

The greening phenomenon was first detected by researchers using satellite data in the mid-1990s, but they did not know whether human activity was one of its chief, direct causes.

上世纪90年代中期,研究人员首次利用卫星数据发现了这种绿化现象,但他们不知道人类活动是否是其主要直接原因之一。

An advantage of the MODIS satellite sensor is the intensive coverage it provides, both in space and time: MODIS has captured as many as four shots of every place on Earth, every day for the last 20 years.

MODIS卫星传感器的一个优势是它在空间和时间上提供了密集的覆盖:在过去20年里,MODIS每天拍摄了地球上每个地方多达四张的照片。

“This long-term data lets us dig deeper,” said Rama Nemani, a research scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center and a co-author of the new work. “When the greening of the Earth was first observed, we thought it was due to a warmer, wetter climate and fertilization from the added carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, leading to more leaf growth in northern forests, for instance. Now, with the MODIS data that lets us understand the phenomenon at really small scales, we see that humans are also contributing.”

“这些长期数据让我们可以更深入地挖掘,”NASA艾姆斯研究中心(Ames research Center)的研究科学家、这项新研究的合著者拉马·内马尼说。“当我们第一次观察到地球变绿时,我们认为这是由于气候变暖、变湿,以及大气中二氧化碳的增加,例如,导致北方森林中更多的叶子生长,从而产生了肥料。现在,通过MODIS的数据,我们可以在非常小的范围内理解这种现象,我们发现人类也在做出贡献。”

China’s outsized contribution to the global greening trend comes in large part (42%) from programs to conserve and expand forests. These were developed in an effort to reduce the effects of soil erosion, air pollution and climate change. Another 32% there – and 82% of the greening seen in India – comes from intensive cultivation of food crops.

中国对全球绿化趋势的巨大贡献(42%)在很大程度上来自于保护和扩大森林的计划。这些措施是为了减少土壤侵蚀、空气污染和气候变化的影响而制定的。在印度,32%的绿化来自于粮食作物的集约种植。

The land area used to grow crops – more than 770,000 square miles – is comparable in China and India and it has not changed much since the early 2000s; yet these regions have greatly increased both their annual total green leaf area and their food production. This was achieved through multiple cropping practices, where a field is replanted to produce another harvest several times a year. Production of grains, vegetables, fruits, and more have increased by about 35-40% since 2000 to feed their large populations.

用于种植农作物的土地面积——超过77万平方英里——中国和印度相当,自本世纪初以来变化不大;然而,这些地区的年总绿叶面积和粮食产量都大大增加了。这是通过复种实现的,在复种的过程中,一块土地每年会被重新种植几次,以便再次收获。自2000年以来,谷物、蔬菜、水果等的产量增加了35-40%,以养活其庞大的人口。

“Once people realize there’s a problem, they tend to fix it,” he said. “In the 70s and 80s in India and China, the situation around vegetation loss wasn’t good; in the 90s, people realized it; and today things have improved. Humans are incredibly resilient. That’s what we see in the satellite data.”

“一旦人们意识到有问题,他们往往会去解决它,”他说。“在70年代和80年代,印度和中国的植被损失情况并不好;在90年代,人们意识到了这一点;今天情况有所改善。人类具有难以置信的适应力。这就是我们从卫星数据中看到的。”

评论翻译

原创翻译:龙腾网

stoneyOni

China has less than half of Americas co2 emissions per capita. The idea that people in large countries should live like medi peasants to have equal carbon emissions to smaller countries is mind bendingly stupid.

中国的人均二氧化碳排放量还不到美国的一半。认为大国的人民应该像中世纪的农民那样生活,以便与小国的碳排放量相等的想法,愚蠢得令人难以置信。

ThunderPreacha

Quantity doesnt mean quality. I cut down many trees. You can plant a gazillion trees but that doesnt mean that you create something worthwhile for wildlife, the planet or humans. E.g. the eucalyptus plantations. If reforestation is left by nature or people with just good intentions it doesnt mean really worthwhile ecosystems are created, at least not in the time frame necessary (in the very end nature could sort it out).

数量不等于质量。我砍倒了许多树。你可以种下无数棵树,但这并不意味着你创造了对野生动物、地球或人类有价值的东西。例如:桉树种植园。如果重新造林是自然留下的,或者人们只是出于良好的意图,这并不意味着真正有价值的生态系统被创造出来,至少不是在必要的时间框架内(最终大自然可以解决这个问题)。

What we damaged is not easily replaced and certainly not with the intention of just planting many trees. Reforestation is a serious job but too often not executed in a serious and well thought manner backed by sufficient funds.

我们破坏的东西是不容易更换的,当然也不是有意要种很多树的。重新造林是一项严肃的工作,但往往没有得到足够资金的认真和深思熟虑的执行。

glassed_redhead

Exactly this. A monoculture forest will not support the same rich ecosystem as old growth forests. Clear cutting rain forests is not cancelled out by replanting with one species of fast growing tree.

正是这一点。单一栽培的“森林”将无法支持与原始生长森林相同的丰富生态系统。砍伐雨林并不会因为重新种植一种生长迅速的树木而被抵消。

Macrocarpa82

Thank you China and India. Keep it up. Europe and the Americas need to catch up and keep pace.

谢谢中国和印度。坚持下去。欧洲和美洲需要迎头赶上。

Mcwedlav

Europe and Northern America also increased in amount of trees. Generally, forests are spreading in the developed world. Especially in the last 15 years. This is also one of the reasons that wild fires in Europe are getting more devastating. Because the new forests are more of mono cultures and the tree species that were initially used are rather quick to start burning.

The problem is rather that South America and Africa are suffering from deforestation of very dense rain forest areas.

欧洲和北美的树木数量也有所增加。一般来说,森林正在发达国家蔓延。尤其是最近15年。这也是欧洲野火愈演愈烈的原因之一。因为新的森林更多的是单一的种类,最初使用的树种很快就开始燃烧。

问题是南美和非洲正遭受着非常密集的热带雨林地区的森林砍伐。

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